Biomedical ethics In vitro fertilization/ natural family planning

biomedical ethics In vitro fertilization/ natural family planning
 
1. Description and bioethical analysis of:
a. Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
It is a procedure used during the process of in vitro fertilization prior to the implantation to help identify genetic defects within embryos. The PGD is used to prevent genetic diseases or disorders from passing on to a baby. PGD is another layer of violence that is being done on the abnormal baby, and we are playing God, not letting nature take care of the abnormalities.
b. Surrogate motherhood
I That is a woman who carries a fetus to term for a couple struggling with infertility problems. At birth, the surrogate mother gives the child to the couple that had hired her to carry the baby. The surrogacy denies the child from their natural mother, and they lose the bonding that existed during the nine months. The infertile couple is willing to do anything to have a baby.
c. Snowflake babies
It is the equivalent of adopting a child, where a couple adopts a frozen embryo. The infertile couple or any couple who wants to save the life of those unwanted frozen embryos engaged in the adoption of those babies by cutting some step in the fertilization process.
d. Artificial insemination
Artificial insemination Is the introduction of the sperm in the female cervix or uterine cavity to result in pregnancy through in vivo fertilization. The body can make the natural selection by allowing the most vigorous spermatozoid to fertilize the eggs. This system assists the couple in fertilization.
2. What is Natural Family Planning (NFP)?
Natural Family Planning is a method that can help married couples either achieve or space out pregnancies. The NFP method is based on observing the naturally occurring signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of a woman’s menstrual cycle.
3. Describe the 3 Primary ovulation symptoms.
a) Basal body temperature (BBT)
It is the rise of the body temperature during ovulation.
b) Cervix activity
The cervix is a circular muscle and gateway to the uterus. When the woman is not fertile, the cervix is firm and close; when ovulating, the cervix rise, become softer the orifice will open to allow the sperm to enter.
c) Cervical mucus
The hormonal change of the ovulation controls cervical mucus, and the woman can detect the quality of the mucus if it is stingy; running wet is the fertile period. On the opposite, if the mucus is tacky and opaque, the woman is in the infertile period. The mucus provides nutrients and allows the sperm to travel in the vaginal and uterine cavity.
 
4. Describe the 7 Secondary ovulation symptoms.
Here are the 7 secondary ovulation symptoms:
1) Mittelschmerz: a one-sided, lower abdominal pain associated with ovulation. German for “middle pain”, mittelschmerz occurs midway through a menstrual cycle about 14 days before your next menstrual period.
2) Spotting: It may occur in some women when the ovaries release an egg. A rapid increase in hormones may cause it.
3) Swollen vagina and/ or vulva: the vaginal labium becomes more sensitive when ovulation occurs. Sometimes the vaginal becomes a little swollen and sensitive during this phase.
4) Increased libido: sex drive increases during ovulation. Both easy sex arousal and increased sex drive are noticed during ovulation.
5) Breast tenderness: often women experience tenderness of breast during ovulation. Heaviness of breast is also quite common.
6) General bloating: feeling of bloating is experienced during ovulation and retention of water is also a frequent feature.
7) Ferning: of a fernlike pattern in a dried specimen of cervical mucus, an indication of the presence of estrogen, usually seen at the midpoint of the menstrual cycle; it can be helpful in the determination of ovulation; the same phenomenon occurs with premature rupture of the fetal membranes.
5. Describe various protocols and methods available today.
Here are some major protocols and methods available today:
1) Creighton model (NaPro technology)
This system is a standardized observation technique and charting of biological markers essential to a woman’s health and fertility. These markers tell the couple when they are naturally fertile and infertile to effectively use the model to achieve or avoid pregnancy.
2) Couple to couple (CCL)
is an international, Catholic non-profit organization dedicated to promoting and teaching fertility awareness (natural family planning) to married and engaged couples.
3) Symptom-thermal method:
The sympto-thermal method engages the calendar method, the basal body temperature method, and the cervical mucus method.
4) Billing method
This method teaches you how to understand your fertility pattern by analyzing your cervical mucus each month. It is easily done by taking a cervical mucus sample (by hand) every day and recording its quantity, appearance, and feel on a daily chart. The appearance or feel of your cervical mucus may be described as dry, watery, sticky, creamy, or egg- white like depending on where you are in your cycle. The Billings ovulation method allows you to identify the fertile phase of your menstrual cycle by the presence of cervical mucus and the sensation it produces at the vulva in the days leading up to ovulation.
5) Family of the Americas (based on billings)
This method is based on the simple recognition of natural signs of fertility that appear for a few days during the woman’s menstrual cycle. Family of the Americas (FAF) was instrumental in simplifying the teaching, and the charting system of the Ovulation Method made it applicable for universal use.
6. Describe some ways in which NFP is healthier than contraception.
Natural Family Planning (NFP) is healthier than contraceptives since we don’t use artificial barriers or hormonal methods to avoid pregnancy. In contrast, using other contraceptive methods, breakthrough ovulation, or still possible and might be responsible for artificial abortion without the couple’s knowledge. The body is not exposed to the side effect of most hormonal contraceptives.
7. Bioethical evaluation of NFP as a means and as an end.
As a means is permissible, it respects intimacy itself, and a couple can use the Natural Family Planning as a means to space out pregnancy. The couple should respect human nature. If a couple has difficulty procreating, it can be used to have children.
 
8. Summary of paragraph 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 52
When a couple is going through an infertility problem, the church allows assistance if the procreative and unitive part is maintained in the marital act. The assistance should not involve the destruction of a massive embryo and should protect the purpose of the marital act. Surrogacy is a commercial contract between two parties affecting the mother-baby relationship, and those contracts denigrate the dignity of women, especially the poor. A Catholic health care institution that provides infertility treatment should provide, besides technical help, other means of assistance to the affected couple. Catholic health institutions should teach couples about responsible parenthood and natural family planning. Those institutions should provide women’s health services without judging or promoting contraceptive methods.
References:
*Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/aT32dyViGZQ BIO 602 2 16 19 NFP *Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, 6th Edition. (2018) U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. Washington, DC. Paragraph 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 52
 
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